Research

Covers of my major publications

My major research projects

Surrealism

The first was Surrealism with a particular focus on the parasurrealist group Le Grand Jeu, as I had written my thesis on the work of René Daumal. I returned in part to Surrealism in my work on the French film star of the 1920s, Pierre Batcheff, who starred in Buñuel and Dalí’s classic avant-garde film Un chien andalou (1929).

Contemporary French women’s writing

My second interest was contemporary French women’s writing especially two writers prominent in the 1980s, Marie  Cardinal and Chantal Chawaf. I maintained an interest in issues of female voice and space in my work on film versions of the Carmen story and a focus on the work of French filmmaker Agnès Varda. The work on Pierre Batcheff also led to a major article on the 1920s film star Josephine Baker; the article has twice been anthologised. 

Cinema studies

My principal focus was cinema studies, especially French cinema. In 1999 I was made Chevalier dans l’Ordre des Palmes Académiques by the French government for services to French cinema.

In 1999 I was awarded a large grant by the predecessor of the Arts and Humanities Research Council, the Arts and Humanities Research Board for a three-year project on film versions of the Carmen story. This led to a number of academic publications by members of the team (myself, Bruce Babington, Ann Davies and Chris Perriam, as well as spin-offs such as news reports, radio programmes, opera programmes and CD liner notes.

Music and film

My major focus since 2000 has been on music and film. This followed on from my interest in Carmen adaptations, and led to a major conference in 2006, out of which came two edited collections with Robynn Stilwell. I have published a number of articles and book chapters in this field, culminating in a book on music in contemporary French cinema in 2017, currently being translated into Chinese. My most recent book is a history of the French film musical with French-based scholar Marie Cadalanu.

There is a full list of my publications with links below the next gallery.

Covers of edited collections to which I contributed

List of publications with links

Books

(2020). The French film musical. Co-authored with Marie Cadalanu. London: Bloomsbury.

(2017). Music in contemporary French cinema: the crystal-song. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

(2017). Selected essays on French cinema: les hommes et les femmes dans le cinéma français. Translated into Chinese by Li Lina. Beijing: Encyclopaedia of China Publishing.

(2009). Pierre Batcheff and stardom in 1920s French cinema. Co-authored with Eric Rebillard. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

(2007). Carmen on film: a cultural history. Co-authored with Ann Davies, Bruce Babington and Chris Perriam. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Contains ‘Introduction’, ix-xii; (with Ann Davies) ‘Mapping Carmen’, 1-16; (with Ann Davies) ‘Theorizing Carmen’, 17-33; ‘Carmen and the French cinema’, 107-08; ‘Two silent Carmens (Calmettes, 1910; Feyder, 1926)’, 109-21; ‘Jean-Luc’s women (Godard, 1984)’, 122-31; ‘Social-realist fantasies (Rosi, 1984)’, 132-42; ‘A postcolonial Carmen (Ramaka, 2001)’, 143-53; (with Bruce Babington) ‘Carmen and stardom’, 191-92; ‘Viviane Romance’, 205-14; (with Ann Davies) ‘Conclusion’, 237-41.

(2002). French cinema: a student’s guide. Co-authored with Keith Reader. London: Arnold/ Bloomsbury. Reprinted 2008. 

(2001). Jean-Jacques Beineix. Manchester University Press.

(1997). French cinema in the 1980s: nostalgia and the crisis of masculinity. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

(1997). René Daumal’s Mugle and The Silk. Translated with an Introduction by Phil Powrie. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen.

(1993). Compo pub. 2 vols. School of Modern Languages Publications, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

(1990). René Daumal: étude d’une obsessionGeneva: Droz.

(1989). René Daumal, The lie of the truth and other parables from the way of liberation. Translated by Phil Powrie. New York: Hanuman Books.

(1988). René Daumal and Roger Gilbert-LecomteLondon: Grant & Cutler/Boydell & Brewer.

Edited collections

(2023). When music takes over in film. Edited with Anna Windisch and Claus Tieber. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Contains (with Anna Windisch and Claus Tieber) ‘From unheard to meaningful: when music takes over in film’, 1-11; ‘The acoustic wound: reflections on the crystal-song in five American films’, 35-54.

(2016). Bicultural literature and film in French and English. Edited with Peter I. Barta. London: Routledge. Contains (with Peter I. Barta) ‘Being In Between’, 1-22; ‘The location of the bicultural: the coast in three Maghrebi-French films’, 75-90.

(2014). French cinema, 4 vols. London: Routledge. Contains ‘General introduction’, v.1, 1-22; ‘Research bibliography’, v.1, 23-68; (with Eric Rebillard) ‘Josephine Baker and Pierre Batcheff in La Sirène des tropiques’, v.1, 227-238. Reprinted from Studies in French Cinema, 2008, 8:3, 245-64; ‘Heritage, History and the “New Realism”’, v.1, 373-386. Reprinted from Modern & Contemporary France, 1998, 6:4, 479-492; ‘Configurations of Melodrama: Nostalgia and Hysteria in Jean de Florette and Manon des sources’, v.3, 165-174. Reprinted from French Studies, 1992, 46:3, 296-305.

(2008). Composing for the screen in Germany and the USSR: cultural politics and propaganda. Edited with Robynn J. Stilwell. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Contains (with Robynn Stilwell) ‘Introduction’, 1-15.

(2006). Changing tunes: the use of pre-existing music in film. Edited with Robynn J. Stilwell. Aldershot: Ashgate. Contains (with Robynn Stilwell) ‘Introduction’, xiii-xix; ‘The fabulous destiny of the accordion in French cinema’, 137-51.

(2006). The cinema of France. London: Wallflower Press/Columbia University Press. Contains ‘Introduction’, 1-10; ‘Nikita’, 197-206.

(2006). The films of Luc Besson: master of spectacle. Edited with Susan Hayward. Manchester University Press. Contains (with Susan Hayward) ‘Introduction’, 1-9; ‘Of suits and men in the films of Luc Besson’, 75-89; ‘Léon and the cloacal labyrinth’, 147-59.

(2004). The trouble with men: masculinities in European and Hollywood cinema. Edited with Ann Davies and Bruce Babington. London: Wallflower Press/ Columbia University Press. Contains (with Bruce Babington and Ann Davies) ‘Introduction: turning the male inside out’, 1-15; ‘The w/hole and the abject’, 207-17.

(1999). French cinema in the 1990s: continuity and difference. Oxford University Press. Contains ‘Heritage, history and “new realism”: French cinema in the 1990s’, 1-21.

(1991). Contemporary French fiction by women: feminist perspectives. Edited with Margaret Atack. Manchester University Press. Contains (with Margaret Atack) ‘Introduction’, 1-11; ‘Reading for pleasure: Marie Cardinal’s Les mots pour le dire and the text as (re)play of Oedipal configurations’, 163-76.

Special numbers of journals

(2020). ‘Music in French cinema’, French Screen Studies 20(3-4).

(2018). (with Mary Harrod) ‘Comedy’, Studies in French Cinema 18(1).

(2015). (with Diane Gabrysiak) ‘Money matters’, Studies in French Cinema 15(3).

(2014). (with Guido Heldt) ‘Trailers, titles, and end credits’, Music, Sound, and the Moving Image 8(2).

(2008). (with Susan Hayward) ‘The body’, Studies in French Cinema 8(1).

(2007). (with Susan Hayward) ‘Transvergence’, Studies in French Cinema 7(2).

(2004). (with Susan Hayward) ‘The cinema of the 1950s’, Studies in French Cinema 4(1).

Articles and book chapters

(2024). ‘Hearing the music of Engrenages’, French Screen Studies, 24(1), 71–92.

(2023). ‘Ageing disgracefully: Depardieu, Hallyday, Luchini and silver linings in recent French cinema’, in Ageing masculinities in contemporary european and anglophone cinema, edited by T. Tracy and M. Schrage-Früh, London: Routledge, 43-59.

(2021). (with Eric Rebillard) ‘Pierre Batcheff, les lacoudems, et les aventures d’Émile-Émile’, 1895 Revue d’Histoire du Cinéma, 93: 95-111.

(2021). (with Marie Cadalanu) ‘The Marseille operetta’, in Musicals at the margins: genre, boundaries, canons, edited by J. Lobalzo Wright and M. Shearer, London: Bloomsbury, 73-85.

(2020). ‘Mayerling et le regard de Danielle Darrieux’, in Danielle Darrieux: la traversée d’un siècle, edited by G. Le Gras and G. Sellier, Bordeaux: Presses universitaires de Bordeaux, 61-74.

(2019). ‘Carmen, de l’hétérotopie à la métatopie’, Mise au point: Cahiers de l’AFFECAV 12.

(2019). ‘From heterotopia to metatopia: staging death in Carmen’, in French literature on screen, edited by Homer B. Pettey and R. Barton Palmer, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 90-106.

(2019). ‘La chanson-cristal et la répétition’, Connaît-on la chanson? usages de la chanson dans les cinémas d’Europe et d’Amérique Latine depuis 1960, edited by S. Dufays, D. Nasta and M. Cadalanu, Bern: Peter Lang, 33-48.

(2020). (with Marie Cadalanu) ‘Crooning 1936–1956: the film musicals of Tino Rossi and Georges Guétary’, 197-221.

(2018). ‘La musique classique et le cinéma: Un grand amour de Beethoven (1936) et Louise (1938) d’Abel Gance’, Écrans, 8-9: 41-57.

(2018). (with Mary Harrod) ‘Editorial: New directions in contemporary French comedies: from nation, sex and class to ethnicity, community and the vagaries of the postmodern’, Studies in French Cinema 18(1): 1-17. 

(2018). ‘Looking back at the (French) opera-film’, Open Screens 1(1): 1-39.

(2018). ‘La canción-cristal y la repetición’, Conozco la canción: melodías populares en los cines posclásicos de América Latina u Europa, edited by P. Piedras and S. Dufays, Buenos Aires: Libraria, 21-35.

(2018). ‘« Losing the plot » : le loser français et les masculinités à l’écran’, in La figure du loser dans le film et la littérature d’expression française, edited by C. Edwards and F. Cévaër, Limoges: Presses universitaires de Limoges, 31-52.

(2017). ‘Mobilising desire: the operetta films of Pills and Tabet in 1930s France’, Historical Journal of Film Radio and Television, 37(3): 436-454.

(2017). ‘L’Une chante, l’autre pas: music, movement and the utopian community’, in Agnès Varda unlimited: image, music, media, edited by M.-C. Barnet, Oxford: Legenda, 45-64.

(2017). (with Éric Rebillard) ‘Josephine Baker and Pierre Batcheff in La Sirène des tropiques (1927)’, in The Josephine Baker critical reader: selected writings on the entertainer and activist, edited by M. G. Henderson and C. B. Regester, Jefferson: McFarland & Co, 185-197.

(2016). ‘La chanson-cristal’, in La chanson dans le film français et francophone depuis la Nouvelle Vague, edited by R. Lagabrielle and T. Obergöker, Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 65–84.

(2015). (with Diane Gabrysiak) ‘Editorial. Money: now you see it, now you don’t’, Studies in French Cinema 15(3), 197-206.

(2015). ‘Money talks: the logorrheic masquerade in two films from 1934’, Studies in French Cinema 15(3), 207-224.

(2015).‘Soundscapes of loss: songs in contemporary French cinema’, A companion to contemporary French cinema, edited by A. Fox, M. Marie, R. Moine, and H. Radner, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 527-546.

(2014). (with Guido Heldt) Introduction: trailers, titles, and end credits’, Music, Sound, and the Moving Image 8(2), 111-120.

(2014). ‘Luis Mariano et l’exotisme ordinaire’, in S. Layerle and R. Moine (eds), Théorème, sp. no. ‘Voyez comment on chante!: films musicaux et cinéphilies populaires en France (1945–1958), 20 : 19-29.

(2014). ‘Les chansons préexistantes dans le cinéma français’, in Musiques de films: nouveaux enjeux, edited by S. Abhervé, N.T.Binh, J. Mouré, Paris: Les Impressions Nouvelles, 46-59.

(2013). ‘The French musical: swing and big bands in the cinema of the 40s and 50s’, Screen 54(2): 1-23.

(2013). ‘The ecstatic pan’, in A companion to François Truffaut, edited by D. Andrew and A. Gillain, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 184-204.

(2011). ‘Le moment haptique: analyse d’une chanson de Paolo Conte dans 5 x 2’, sp.no. ‘Musique et cinéma: harmonie et contrepoints’, Inter-Lignes, 21-38.

(2011). ‘Heterotopic spaces and nomadic gazes in Varda: from Cléo de 5 à 7 to Les Glaneurs et La Glaneuse’, sp. no. ‘Watch this space: women’s conceptualisations of space in contemporary French film and visual art’, L’Esprit créateur 51(1): 68-82.

(2011). Algeria and women in two 1960s film adaptations of the Carmen narrative’, French Cultural Studies 22(2): 127-36.

(2011). (with Keith Reader) ‘Teaching and research in French cinema’, French Studies in and for the twenty-first century, edited by P. Lane and M. Worton, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 171-83. 

(2011). ‘La musique dans les films de Beineix’, Studio Beineix, Lyon: Fage, 95-103. 

(2010). (with Eric Rebillard) ‘Josephine Baker and Pierre Batcheff in La Sirène des tropiques (1927)’, in Not so silent: women in cinema before sound, edited by S. Bull and A. Söderbergh Widding, Stockholm: Stockholm University Press, 236-47.

(2010). Studies in French cinema: UK perspectives 1985-2010, edited by W. Higbee and S. Leahy, Bristol: Intellect Press. Contains ‘Unfamiliar places: “heterospection” and recent French films on children’, 57-68; ‘Four decades of teaching and research in French cinema’, 353-71.

(2009). ‘Le gender et la musique dans les fictions patrimoniales depuis les années 1980’, in Les Fictions patrimoniales sur grand et petit écran: contours et enjeux d’un genre intermédiatique, edited by P. Beylot and R. Moine, Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux, 123-37.

(2008). (with Eric Rebillard) ‘Josephine Baker and Pierre Batcheff in La Sirène des tropiques (1927)’, Studies in French Cinema 8(3): 245-64.

(2008). (with Eric Rebillard) ‘Pierre Batcheff, the surrealist star’, Studies in French Cinema 8(2): 159-77.

(2008). ‘The haptic moment: sparring with Paolo Conte in Ozon’s 5×2’, sp. no. ‘Cinema and the senses’, Paragraph 31(3): 206-22.

(2008). (with Eric Rebillard) ‘Marcel L’Herbier au carrefour des avant-gardes: Feu Mathias Pascal et le dédoublement’, in Marcel L’Herbier: l’art du cinéma, edited by L. Véray. Paris: Association Française de Recherche sur l’Histoire du Cinéma, 79-90.

(2007). ‘La musique dans le film historique contemporain’, in La Fiction éclatée, vol 2. Petits et grands écrans français et francophones: de l’esthétique à l’économie, edited by J.-P. Bertin-Maghit and G. Sellier, Paris: Institut National de l’Audiovisuel/ L’Harmattan, 205-14.

(2007). ‘La famille (du cinéma) en désordre: Roudinesco and contemporary French cinema’, Affaires de famille: the family in contemporary French culture and theory, edited by M-C. Barnet and E. Welch, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 283-307.

(2007). ‘French neo-noir’, in European film noir: transgression, dissonance and hybridity, edited by A. Spicer, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 55-83.

(2006). ‘The Father with the movie camera: Cet été-là, Mouchette and the “force utérine de l’œil”’, Marie Cardinal: new perspectives, edited by E. Webb, Bern: Peter Lang, 31-52.

(2006). ‘Outing the synch: music and space in the French heritage film’, European film music, edited by M. Mera and D. Burnand, Aldershot: Ashgate, 86-99.

(2006). ‘Embodying the nation: Viviane Romance in Carmen (France, 1945, Christian-Jaque) and Rita Hayworth in The Loves of Carmen (USA, 1948, Charles Vidor)’, in Image into identity: constructing and assigning identity in a culture of modernity, edited by M. Wintle, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 223-36.

(2005). ‘Unfamiliar places: “heterospection” and recent French films on children’, sp. no. ‘The child in film and television’, Screen 46(3): 341-52.

(2005). ‘Space, the crowd and prostitution in Carmen (France, 1910)’, Revisiting space: space and place in European cinema, edited by W. Everett and A. Goodbody, Bern: Peter Lang, 99-113.

(2005). ‘La communauté impossible, ou pourquoi le film musical français se fait rare’, Le cinéma français face aux genres, edited by R. Moine, Paris: Association Française de Recherche sur le Cinéma, 213-22.

(2005). ‘Blonde abjection: spectatorship and the abject anal-space-in-between’, in Pop fiction: the song in cinema, edited by M. Caley and S. Lannin, Exeter: Intellect, 99-119.

(2005). ‘“I’m only here for the beer”: post-tourism and the recycling of French heritage films’, in The media and the tourist imagination: converging cultures, edited by D. Crouch, F. Thompson and R. Jackson, London: Routledge, 143-153.

(2004). ‘Politics and embodiment in Karmen Geï (2001)’, Quarterly Review of Film and Video 21(4): 283-91.

(2004). ‘La Tragédie de Carmen (Peter Brook, 1983) and embodiment’, Studies in European Cinema 1(3): 141-51.

(2004). (with Eric Rebillard) ‘Sauvage et mignon: a star study of Pierre Batcheff’, in Buñuel, siglo XXI, edited by I. Santaolalla et al., Zaragoza: Institución Fernando el Católico/ Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza, 413-418.

(2003). ‘Thirty years of doctoral theses on French cinema’, Studies in French Cinema 3(3): 199-203.

(2003). ‘The w/hole and the abject’, Paragraph 26(1-2): 232-44.

(2003). ‘The kiss-curl and the resisting eyes: reassessing Carmen (Feyder, 1926)’, Studies in French Cinema 3(1): 15-23.

(2003). ‘The Sting in the tale’, Popular music and film, edited by I. Inglis, London: Wallflower Press, 39-59.

(2003). ‘The disintegration of community: a brief history of popular music in French cinema 1945-present’, in Popular music in France from chanson to techno: culture, identity and society, edited by H. Dauncey and S. Cannon, Aldershot: Ashgate, 97-122. 

(2003). Two items in in The 1001 films you must see before you die, London: Quintet. Contains ‘La Roue/The Wheel (1923)’, 50; Le Dernier combat/ The Last Battle (1983)’, 698.

(2003). ‘Cinema’, in French popular culture: an introduction, edited by H. Dauncey, London: Arnold, 119-34.

(2002). ‘Transtitial woman: new representations of women in contemporary French cinema’, Esprit Créateur 42(3): 81-91.

(2002). ‘Towards an ethics of intermediality: text, intertext and identification in La Dentellière’, Literature/Film Quarterly 30(2): 92-97.

(2002). ‘Out of this world (cinema): French cinema studies now’, Journal of Romance Studies 1(3): 143-52.

(2002). ‘Diva: A new psychoanalytical approach’, Studies in French Cinema 2(1): 50-58.

(2002). ‘Jean-Jacques Beineix’, in Fifty contemporary film-makers, edited by Y. Tasker, London: Routledge, 33-41.

(2001). ‘The god, the king, the fool and ØØ: the oedipal trajectory in the films of Beineix’, Gender and French cinema, edited by A. Hughes and J. Williams, Oxford: Berg, 195-208.

(2001). ‘Marius et Jeannette: nostalgia and utopia’, France on film: reflections on popular French cinema, edited by L. Mazdon, London: Wallflower Press, 133-44.

(2000). ‘Bleu, blanc, rouge: masochism and the distinction between verbal and visual automatism’, Australian Journal of French Studies 37(1): 40-51.

(2000). ‘The “family portrait”: trauma and the punctum in Distant Voices, Still Lives’, in The seeing century: film, vision, and identity, edited by W. Everett, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 20-35.

(2000). ‘On the threshold between past and present: “alternative heritage”’, British cinema: past and present, edited by A. Higson and J. Ashby, London: Routledge, 316-26.

(1998). ‘Masculinity in the shadow of the slashed eye: surrealist film criticism at the crossroads’, Screen 39(2): 153-63.

(1998). ‘Heritage, history and the “new realism”’, Modern & Contemporary France 6(4): 479-92.

(1998). Contributions on French cinema for Encyclopaedia of contemporary French culture, edited by A. Hughes and K. Reader, London: Routledge.

(1996). ‘Ten years on: Mauvais Sang and the crisis of masculinity’, Modern & Contemporary France 4(2): 161-70.

(1996). ‘Parody and violation in René Daumal’s Mugle’, sp.no. ‘Surrealism’, Aura, 24-35.

(1996). ‘The surrealist poème-objet’, in Surrealism: surrealist visuality, edited by S. Levy, Keele University Press, pp.57-77.

(1995). ‘Godard’s Prénom: Carmen: masochism and the male gaze’, sp.no. European film’, Forum for Modern Language Studies 31(1): 64-73.

(1994). (with Jane Bidder] ‘Lesbian speculations on/in Claudine Married, Women’s Studies 23(1): 57-68.

(1993).  ‘Interpreting from a video source: teaching and evaluation’, in Integrating new approaches: the teaching of French in higher education, London: AFLS/CILT, 79-94.

(1993). ‘Francesco Rosi’s Carmen and the fantasy of realism’, Word and Image 9(1): 19-28.

(1993). ‘Diva’s deluxe disasters’, special no. on French cinema, Nottingham French Studies 32(1): 109-20.

(1992). (with G. E. Hare) ‘Developing transferable personal skills in a business studies option of a French undergraduate degree’, in French and the enterprise path: developing transferable and professional skills, London: AFLS/CILT, 63-80.

(1992). ‘Rereading between the lines: a postscript on La Femme rompue’, Modern Language Review 87(2): 320-29.

(1992). ‘Reflections on/from the ruined eye’, SuperReal: The British Journal of Surrealism 1: 6-13.

(1992). ‘Interpreting in the undergraduate French degree: a national survey 1990-1991’, Francophonie 4: 18-22.

(1992). ‘Configurations of melodrama: nostalgia and hysteria in Jean de Florette/Manon des Sources’, French Studies 46(3): 296-305.

(1992). ‘Angela Carter/Chantal Chawaf: rewriting the domestic’, New Comparisons 11: 127-36.

(1991). (with D.S. Place) ‘Comparing notes: interactive translating’, sp.no. ‘The Teaching of Translation’, UEA Papers in Linguistics 31-32: 77-86.

(1991). ‘Film-Form-Mind: the Hegelian follies of Roger Gilbert-Lecomte’, Quarterly Review of Film and Video 12(4): 19-32.

(1990).  (with G.E. Hare) ‘Working in the permanent revolution: business and administrative French as a complement to a communicatively based core language course’, Association for French Language Studies Newsletter 26: 19-22.

(1990). ‘Truffaut’s Vivement Dimanche! (1983), or, how to take away with one hand what you give with the other’, Modern & Contemporary France 43: 37-46.

(1990). ‘Sexuality in Swann in Love’, in French Cultural Studies 1: 247-56.

(1990). ‘Other voices: in defence of feminist literary criticism’, French Studies Bulletin 37: 13-15.

(1990). ‘Breton’s vertical labyrinth: towards a psycho-semiosis’, Romanic Review 81(4): 454-65.

(1990). ‘Ad libbing ! using advertisements as part of a French business course’, The Language Learning Journal 1: 83-85.

(1990). ‘Myth versus allegory: the problematisation of narrative in Chantal Chawaf’s Le Soleil et la terre’, in The body and the text: Hélène Cixous, reading and teaching, edited by H. Wilcox, K. McWatters, A. Thompson, L. Williams, New York: Harvester/Wheatsheaf, 78-86.

(1989). ‘Salon terrorism and the recycling of intellectual commodities: the case of Le Grand Jeu and Surrealism’, sp.no. ‘Surrealism’, La Chouette 22: 53-62.

(1989). ‘René Daumal and the pataphysics of liberation’, Neophilologus 73(4): 532-40.

(1989). ‘A womb of one’s own: the metaphor of the womb-room as a reading-effect in texts by contemporary French women writers’, Paragraph 12(3): 197-213.

(1988). ‘Marketing history: Swann in Love’, Film Criticism 12(3): 33-45.

(1988). ‘Automatic writing: Breton, Daumal, Hegel’, French Studies 42(2): 177-93.

(1986). ‘The Twentieth Century, from 1945’, The Year’s Work in Modern Language Studies 48: 260-81.

(1986). ‘Crossing the divide: language/culture integration’, Association for French Language Studies Newsletter 15: 20-33.